Are there any RPG games with adventure guilds and ranks like in anime/manga?
Of course there are. Especially among the eastern games.
The recent Genshin Impact has an abundance of different progress bars. One of them is your rank in an adventurer guild – you get presents from the guild when it raises, and occasionally its increase causes an increase of World Level, which is the level of opposition you have to face.
Of the older games, Kamidori Alchemy Meister had MC progress in alchemist guild. In a world where alchemists are supposed to slay demons to make armor out of their skin. Each rank increase had the guild reveal more craft secrets to the MC, enabling him to craft even more stuff.